The MaxMind DB file format is a database format that maps IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to data records using an efficient binary search tree.
This spec documents version 2.0 of the MaxMind DB binary format.
The version number consists of separate major and minor version numbers. It should not be considered a decimal number. In other words, version 2.10 comes after version 2.9.
Code which is capable of reading a given major version of the format should not be broken by minor version changes to the format.
The binary database is split into three parts:
This portion of the database is stored at the end of the file. It is documented first because understanding some of the metadata is key to understanding how the other sections work.
This section can be found by looking for a binary sequence matching “\xab\xcd\xefMaxMind.com”. The last occurrence of this string in the file marks the end of the data section and the beginning of the metadata. Since we allow for arbitrary binary data in the data section, some other piece of data could contain these values. This is why you need to find the last occurrence of this sequence.
The maximum allowable size for the metadata section, including the marker that starts the metadata, is 128KiB.
The metadata is stored as a map data structure. This structure is described later in the spec. Changing a key’s data type or removing a key would constitute a major version change for this spec.
Except where otherwise specified, each key listed is required for the database to be considered valid.
Adding a key constitutes a minor version change. Removing a key or changing its type constitutes a major version change.
The list of known keys for the current version of the format is as follows:
This is an unsigned 32-bit integer indicating the number of nodes in the search tree.
This is an unsigned 16-bit integer. It indicates the number of bits in a record in the search tree. Note that each node consists of two records.
This is an unsigned 16-bit integer which is always 4 or 6. It indicates whether the database contains IPv4 or IPv6 address data.
This is a string that indicates the structure of each data record associated with an IP address. The actual definition of these structures is left up to the database creator.
Names starting with “GeoIP” are reserved for use by MaxMind (and “GeoIP” is a trademark anyway).
An array of strings, each of which is a locale code. A given record may contain data items that have been localized to some or all of these locales. Records should not contain localized data for locales not included in this array.
This is an optional key, as this may not be relevant for all types of data.
This is an unsigned 16-bit integer indicating the major version number for the database’s binary format.
This is an unsigned 16-bit integer indicating the minor version number for the database’s binary format.
This is an unsigned 64-bit integer that contains the database build timestamp as a Unix epoch value.
This key will always point to a map. The keys of that map will be language codes, and the values will be a description in that language as a UTF-8 string.
The codes may include additional information such as script or country identifiers, like “zh-TW” or “mn-Cyrl-MN”. The additional identifiers will be separated by a dash character (“-“).
This key is optional. However, creators of databases are strongly encouraged to include a description in at least one language.
The formula for calculating the search tree section size in bytes is as follows:
( ( $record_size * 2 ) / 8 ) * $number_of_nodes
The end of the search tree marks the beginning of the data section.
The database file starts with a binary search tree. The number of nodes in the tree is dependent on how many unique netblocks are needed for the particular database. For example, the city database needs many more small netblocks than the country database.
The top most node is always located at the beginning of the search tree section’s address space. The top node is node 0.
Each node consists of two records, each of which is a pointer to an address in the file.
The pointers can point to one of three things. First, it may point to another node in the search tree address space. These pointers are followed as part of the IP address search algorithm, described below.
The pointer can point to a value equal to
$number_of_nodes. If this is the
case, it means that the IP address we are searching for is not in the
Finally, it may point to an address in the data section. This is the data relevant to the given netblock.
Each node in the search tree consists of two records, each of which is a pointer. The record size varies by database, but inside a single database node records are always the same size. A record may be anywhere from 24 to 128 bits long, depending on the number of nodes in the tree. These pointers are stored in big-endian format (most significant byte first).
Here are some examples of how the records are laid out in a node for 24, 28, and 32 bit records. Larger record sizes follow this same pattern.
| <------------- node --------------->| | 23 .. 0 | 23 .. 0 |
| <------------- node --------------->| | 23 .. 0 | 27..24 | 27..24 | 23 .. 0 |
Note 4 bits of each pointer are combined into the middle byte. For both records, they are prepended and end up in the most significant position.
| <------------- node --------------->| | 31 .. 0 | 31 .. 0 |
The first step is to convert the IP address to its big-endian binary representation. For an IPv4 address, this becomes 32 bits. For IPv6 you get 128 bits.
The leftmost bit corresponds to the first node in the search tree. For each bit, a value of 0 means we choose the left record in a node, and a value of 1 means we choose the right record.
The record value is always interpreted as an unsigned integer. The maximum size of the integer is dependent on the number of bits in a record (24, 28, or 32).
If the record value is a number that is less than the number of nodes (not in bytes, but the actual node count) in the search tree (this is stored in the database metadata), then the value is a node number. In this case, we find that node in the search tree and repeat the lookup algorithm from there.
If the record value is equal to the number of nodes, that means that we do not have any data for the IP address, and the search ends here.
If the record value is greater than the number of nodes in the search tree, then it is an actual pointer value pointing into the data section. The value of the pointer is relative to the start of the data section, not the start of the file.
In order to determine where in the data section we should start looking, we use the following formula:
$data_section_offset = ( $record_value - $node_count ) - 16
The 16 is the size of the data section separator. We subtract it because we
want to permit pointing to the first byte of the data section. Recall that
the record value cannot equal the node count as that means there is no
data. Instead, we choose to start values that go to the data section at
$node_count + 16. (This has the side effect that record values
$node_count + 1 through
$node_count + 15 inclusive are not valid).
This is best demonstrated by an example:
Let’s assume we have a 24-bit tree with 1,000 nodes. Each node contains 48 bits, or 6 bytes. The size of the tree is 6,000 bytes.
When a record in the tree contains a number that is less than 1,000, this is a node number, and we look up that node. If a record contains a value greater than or equal to 1,016, we know that it is a data section value. We subtract the node count (1,000) and then subtract 16 for the data section separator, giving us the number 0, the first byte of the data section.
If a record contained the value 6,000, this formula would give us an offset of 4,984 into the data section.
In order to determine where in the file this offset really points to, we also need to know where the data section starts. This can be calculated by determining the size of the search tree in bytes and then adding an additional 16 bytes for the data section separator:
$offset_in_file = $data_section_offset + $search_tree_size_in_bytes + 16
Since we subtract and then add 16, the final formula to determine the offset in the file can be simplified to:
$offset_in_file = ( $record_value - $node_count ) + $search_tree_size_in_bytes
When storing IPv4 addresses in an IPv6 tree, they are stored as-is, so they occupy the first 32-bits of the address space (from 0 to 2**32 - 1).
Creators of databases should decide on a strategy for handling the various mappings between IPv4 and IPv6.
The strategy that MaxMind uses for its GeoIP databases is to include a pointer
::ffff:0:0/96 subnet to the root node of the IPv4 address space in
the tree. This accounts for the
IPv4-mapped IPv6 address.
MaxMind also includes a pointer from the
2002::/16 subnet to the root node
of the IPv4 address space in the tree. This accounts for the
6to4 mapping subnet.
Database creators are encouraged to document whether they are doing something similar for their databases.
The Teredo subnet cannot be accounted for in the tree. Instead, code that searches the tree can offer to decode the IPv4 portion of a Teredo address and look that up.
There are 16 bytes of NULLs in between the search tree and the data section. This separator exists in order to make it possible for a verification tool to distinguish between the two sections.
This separator is not considered part of the data section itself. In other
words, the data section starts at
$size_of_search_tree + 16 bytes in the
Each output data field has an associated type, and that type is encoded as a number that begins the data field. Some types are variable length. In those cases, the type indicator is also followed by a length. The data payload always comes at the end of the field.
All binary data is stored in big-endian format.
Note that the interpretation of a given data type’s meaning is decided by higher-level APIs, not by the binary format itself.
A pointer to another part of the data section’s address space. The pointer will point to the beginning of a field. It is illegal for a pointer to point to another pointer.
Pointer values start from the beginning of the data section, not the beginning of the file.
A variable length byte sequence that contains valid utf8. If the length is zero then this is an empty string.
This is stored as an IEEE-754 double (binary64) in big-endian format. The length of a double is always 8 bytes.
A variable length byte sequence containing any sort of binary data. If the length is zero then this a zero-length byte sequence.
This is not currently used but may be used in the future to embed non-text data (images, etc.).
Integers are stored in variable length binary fields.
We support 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit, and 128-bit unsigned integers. We also support 32-bit signed integers.
A 128-bit integer can use up to 16 bytes, but may use fewer. Similarly, a 32-bit integer may use from 0-4 bytes. The number of bytes used is determined by the length specifier in the control byte. See below for details.
A length of zero always indicates the number 0.
When storing a signed integer, the left-most bit is the sign. A 1 is negative and a 0 is positive.
The type numbers for our integer types are:
The unsigned 32-bit and 128-bit types may be used to store IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, respectively.
The signed 32-bit integers are stored using the 2’s complement representation.
A map data type contains a set of key/value pairs. Unlike other data types, the length information for maps indicates how many key/value pairs it contains, not its length in bytes. This size can be zero.
See below for the algorithm used to determine the number of pairs in the hash. This algorithm is also used to determine the length of a field’s payload.
An array type contains a set of ordered values. The length information for arrays indicates how many values it contains, not its length in bytes. This size can be zero.
This type uses the same algorithm as maps for determining the length of a field’s payload.
This is a special data type that marks a container used to cache repeated data. For example, instead of repeating the string “United States” over and over in the database, we store it in the cache container and use pointers into this container instead.
Nothing in the database will ever contain a pointer to this field itself. Instead, various fields will point into the container.
The primary reason for making this a separate data type versus simply inlining the cached data is so that a database dumper tool can skip this cache when dumping the data section. The cache contents will end up being dumped as pointers into it are followed.
The end marker marks the end of the data section. It is not strictly necessary, but including this marker allows a data section deserializer to process a stream of input, rather than having to find the end of the section before beginning the deserialization.
This data type is not followed by a payload, and its size is always zero.
A true or false value. The length information for a boolean type will always be 0 or 1, indicating the value. There is no payload for this field.
This is stored as an IEEE-754 float (binary32) in big-endian format. The length of a float is always 4 bytes.
This type is provided primarily for completeness. Because of the way floating point numbers are stored, this type can easily lose precision when serialized and then deserialized. If this is an issue for you, consider using a double instead.
Each field starts with a control byte. This control byte provides information about the field’s data type and payload size.
The first three bits of the control byte tell you what type the field is. If these bits are all 0, then this is an “extended” type, which means that the next byte contains the actual type. Otherwise, the first three bits will contain a number from 1 to 7, the actual type for the field.
We’ve tried to assign the most commonly used types as numbers 1-7 as an optimization.
With an extended type, the type number in the second byte is the number minus 7. In other words, an array (type 11) will be stored with a 0 for the type in the first byte and a 4 in the second.
Here is an example of how the control byte may combine with the next byte to tell us the type:
001XXXXX pointer 010XXXXX UTF-8 string 110XXXXX unsigned 32-bit int (ASCII) 000XXXXX 00000011 unsigned 128-bit int (binary) 000XXXXX 00000100 array 000XXXXX 00000110 end marker
The next five bits in the control byte tell you how long the data field’s payload is, except for maps and pointers. Maps and pointers use this size information a bit differently. See below.
If the five bits are smaller than 29, then those bits are the payload size in bytes. For example:
01000010 UTF-8 string - 2 bytes long 01011100 UTF-8 string - 28 bytes long 11000001 unsigned 32-bit int - 1 byte long 00000011 00000011 unsigned 128-bit int - 3 bytes long
If the five bits are equal to 29, 30, or 31, then use the following algorithm to calculate the payload size.
If the value is 29, then the size is 29 + the next byte after the type specifying bytes as an unsigned integer.
If the value is 30, then the size is 285 + the next two bytes after the type specifying bytes as a single unsigned integer.
If the value is 31, then the size is 65,821 + the next three bytes after the type specifying bytes as a single unsigned integer.
01011101 00110011 UTF-8 string - 80 bytes long
In this case, the last five bits of the control byte equal 29. We treat the next byte as an unsigned integer. The next byte is 51, so the total size is (29 + 51) = 80.
01011110 00110011 00110011 UTF-8 string - 13,392 bytes long
The last five bits of the control byte equal 30. We treat the next two bytes as a single unsigned integer. The next two bytes equal 13,107, so the total size is (285 + 13,107) = 13,392.
01011111 00110011 00110011 00110011 UTF-8 string - 3,421,264 bytes long
The last five bits of the control byte equal 31. We treat the next three bytes as a single unsigned integer. The next three bytes equal 3,355,443, so the total size is (65,821 + 3,355,443) = 3,421,264.
This means that the maximum payload size for a single field is 16,843,036 bytes.
The binary number types always have a known size, but for consistency’s sake, the control byte will always specify the correct size for these types.
Maps use the size in the control byte (and any following bytes) to indicate the number of key/value pairs in the map, not the size of the payload in bytes.
This means that the maximum number of pairs for a single map is 16,843,036.
Maps are laid out with each key followed by its value, followed by the next pair, etc.
The keys are always UTF-8 strings. The values may be any data type, including maps or pointers.
Once we know the number of pairs, we can look at each pair in turn to determine the size of the key and the key name, as well as the value’s type and payload.
Pointers use the last five bits in the control byte to calculate the pointer value.
To calculate the pointer value, we start by subdividing the five bits into two groups. The first two bits indicate the size, and the next three bits are part of the value, so we end up with a control byte breaking down like this: 001SSVVV.
The size can be 0, 1, 2, or 3.
If the size is 0, the pointer is built by appending the next byte to the last three bits to produce an 11-bit value.
If the size is 1, the pointer is built by appending the next two bytes to the last three bits to produce a 19-bit value + 2048.
If the size is 2, the pointer is built by appending the next three bytes to the last three bits to produce a 27-bit value + 526336.
Finally, if the size is 3, the pointer’s value is contained in the next four bytes as a 32-bit value. In this case, the last three bits of the control byte are ignored.
This means that we are limited to 4GB of address space for pointers, so the data section size for the database is limited to 4GB.
This specification was created by the following authors:
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